11.3 Raise Statements and Raise ExpressionsRaise Statements
conditional expressions, this doesn't say "immediately surrounded";
the only requirement is that it is somehow within a pair of parentheses
that is part of the expression.
We need this restriction in order that raise_expressions
cannot be syntactically confused with immediately following constructs
(such as aspect_specifications).
only need to require that a right parenthesis appear somewhere between
and the surrounding context; that's all we need to specify in order to
eliminate the ambiguities. Moreover, we don't care at all where the left
parenthesis is (so long as it is legal, of course).
instance, the following is illegal by this rule:
Obj : Boolean := Func_Call or else raise TBD_Error with Atomic;
the "with Atomic" could be part of the raise_expression
or part of the object declaration. Both of the following are legal:
Obj : Boolean := Func_Call or else (raise TBD_Error) with Atomic;
Obj : Boolean := (Func_Call or else raise TBD_Error) with Atomic;
if the with belongs to the raise_expression,
then both of the following are legal:
Obj : Boolean := Func_Call or else (raise TBD_Error with Atomic);
Obj : Boolean := (Func_Call or else raise TBD_Error with Atomic);
rule only requires parentheses for raise_expressions
that are part of the "top-level" of an expression
in one of the named contexts; the raise_expression
is either the entire expression,
or part of a chain of logical operations. In practice, the raise_expression
will almost always be last in interesting top-level expressions;
anything that follows it could never be executed, so that should be rare.
Other contexts such as conditional expressions, qualified expressions,
aggregates, and even function calls, provide the needed parentheses.
All of the following are legal, no additional parens are needed:
Pre : Boolean := (if not Is_Valid(Param) then raise Not_Valid_Error);
A : A_Tagged := (Some_Tagged'(raise TBD_Error) with Comp => 'A');
B : Some_Array := (1, 2, 3, others => raise Not_Valid_Error);
C : Natural := Func (Val => raise TBD_Error);
that are part of the context of the expression
don't count. For instance, the parentheses around the raise_expression
are required in the following:
D : A_Tagged := ((raise TBD_Error) with Comp => 'A');
rule could have been implemented instead by adding nonterminals initial_expression
and initial_relation, which are the same as
except for the inclusion of membership in initial_relation.
Then, initial_expresion could be used in place
in all of the contexts noted. We did not do that because of the large
amount of change required, both to the grammar and to language rules
that refer to the grammar. A complete grammar is given in AI12-0152-1.
Name Resolution Rules
To raise an exception
is to raise a new occurrence
of that exception[, as explained in 11.4
For the execution of a raise_statement
with an exception_name
the named exception is raised. Similarly, for the
evaluation of a raise_expression,
the named exception is raised.
of these cases, if If
is present, the expression expression
is evaluated and its value is associated with the exception occurrence.]
For the execution of a re-raise statement, the exception
occurrence that caused transfer of control to the innermost enclosing
handler is raised [again].
The definition of Exceptions.Exception_Message includes a statement that
the string is returned (see 11.4.1
describe the use of the string here so that we don't have an unexplained
parameter in this subclause.
Implementation Note: For a re-raise statement,
the implementation does not create a new Exception_Occurrence, but instead
propagates the same Exception_Occurrence value. This allows the original
cause of the exception to be determined.
Term entry: raise
an exception — to abandon normal program execution so as to
draw attention to the fact that the corresponding situation has arisen
Examples of raise
Ada.IO_Exceptions.Name_Error; -- see A.13
"Buffer Full"; -- see 9.11
raise; -- re-raise the current exception
-- For an example of a raise expression, see the Streams Subsystem definitions in 13.13.1.
Wording Changes from Ada 83
The fact that the name
in a raise_statement
has to denote an exception is not clear from RM83. Clearly that was the
intent, since the italicized part of the syntax rules so indicate, but
there was no explicit rule. RM83-1.5(11) doesn't seem to give the italicized
parts of the syntax any force.
Extensions to Ada 95
The syntax of a raise_statement
is extended to include a string message. This is more convenient than
calling Exceptions.Exception_Message (exception_name
and should encourage the use of message strings when raising exceptions.
Extensions to Ada 2012
Corrigendum: The raise_expression
is new. This construct is necessary to allow conversion of existing specifications
to use preconditions and predicates without changing the exceptions raised.
It is considered important enough to be added to Ada 2012 rather than
waiting for Ada 2022.
Ada 2005 and 2012 Editions sponsored in part by Ada-Europe