D.14 Execution Time
The following language-defined library package exists:
with Nonblocking, Global => in out synchronized is
CPU_Time is private
CPU_Time_First : constant
CPU_Time_Last : constant
CPU_Time_Unit : constant
CPU_Tick : constant
(T : Ada.Task_Identification.Task_Id
function "+" (Left : CPU_Time; Right : Time_Span) return CPU_Time;
function "+" (Left : Time_Span; Right : CPU_Time) return CPU_Time;
function "-" (Left : CPU_Time; Right : Time_Span) return CPU_Time;
function "-" (Left : CPU_Time; Right : CPU_Time) return Time_Span;
function "<" (Left, Right : CPU_Time) return Boolean;
function "<=" (Left, Right : CPU_Time) return Boolean;
function ">" (Left, Right : CPU_Time) return Boolean;
function ">=" (Left, Right : CPU_Time) return Boolean;
(T : in
CPU_Time; SC : out
Seconds_Count; TS : out
Time_Of (SC : Seconds_Count;
TS : Time_Span := Time_Span_Zero) return
Interrupt_Clocks_Supported : constant
Boolean := implementation-defined
Separate_Interrupt_Clocks_Supported : constant
... -- not specified by the language
The execution time
CPU time of a given task is defined as the time spent by the system executing
that task, including the time spent executing run-time or system services
on its behalf. The mechanism used to measure execution time is implementation
defined. The Boolean constant Interrupt_Clocks_Supported is set to True
if the implementation separately accounts for the execution time of interrupt
handlers. If it is set to False it is implementation defined which task,
if any, is charged the execution time that is consumed by interrupt handlers.
The Boolean constant Separate_Interrupt_Clocks_Supported is set to True
if the implementation separately accounts for the execution time of individual
interrupt handlers (see D.14.3
Discussion: The implementation-defined
properties above and of the values declared in the package are repeated
in Documentation Requirements, so we don't mark them as implementation-defined.
The type CPU_Time represents the execution time of a task. The set of
values of this type corresponds one-to-one with an implementation-defined
range of mathematical integers.
The CPU_Time value I represents the half-open execution-time interval
that starts with I*CPU_Time_Unit and is limited by (I+1)*CPU_Time_Unit,
where CPU_Time_Unit is an implementation-defined real number. For each
task, the execution time value is set to zero at the creation of the
Ramification: Since it is implementation-defined
which task is charged execution time for system services, the execution
time value may become nonzero even before the start of the activation
of the task.
CPU_Time_First and CPU_Time_Last are the smallest and largest values
of the CPU_Time type, respectively.
The execution time value for the function Clock_For_Interrupts is initialized
CPU_Time_Unit is the smallest amount of execution
time representable by the CPU_Time type; it is expressed in seconds.
A CPU clock tick
is an execution time interval during which the
clock value (as observed by calling the Clock function) remains constant.
CPU_Tick is the average length of such intervals.
The effects of the operators on CPU_Time and Time_Span are as for the
operators defined for integer types.
The function Clock returns the current execution time of the task identified
by T; Tasking_Error is raised if that task has terminated; Program_Error
is raised if the value of T is Task_Identification.Null_Task_Id.
The effects of the Split and Time_Of operations are defined as follows,
treating values of type CPU_Time, Time_Span, and Seconds_Count as mathematical
integers. The effect of Split (T, SC, TS) is to set SC and TS to values
such that T*CPU_Time_Unit = SC*1.0 + TS*CPU_Time_Unit, and 0.0 <=
TS*CPU_Time_Unit < 1.0. The value returned by Time_Of(SC,TS) is the
execution-time value T such that T*CPU_Time_Unit=SC*1.0 + TS*CPU_Time_Unit.
The function Clock_For_Interrupts returns the total cumulative time spent
executing within all interrupt handlers. This time is not allocated to
any task execution time clock. If Interrupt_Clocks_Supported is set to
False the function raises Program_Error.
For a call of Clock, if the task identified by T
no longer exists, the execution of the program is erroneous.
The range of CPU_Time values shall be sufficient to uniquely represent
the range of execution times from the task start-up to 50 years of execution
time later. CPU_Tick shall be no greater than 1 millisecond.
The implementation shall document the values of CPU_Time_First, CPU_Time_Last,
CPU_Time_Unit, and CPU_Tick.
Documentation Requirement: The values
of CPU_Time_First, CPU_Time_Last, CPU_Time_Unit, and CPU_Tick of package
The implementation shall document the properties of the underlying mechanism
used to measure execution times, such as the range of values supported
and any relevant aspects of the underlying hardware or operating system
Documentation Requirement: The properties
of the mechanism used to implement package Execution_Time, including
the values of the constants defined in the package.
The implementation shall document the following metrics:
An upper bound on the execution-time duration of
a clock tick. This is a value D such that if t1 and t2 are any execution
times of a given task such that t1 < t2 and Clockt1
then t2 – t1 <= D.
An upper bound on the size of a clock jump. A clock
jump is the difference between two successive distinct values of an execution-time
clock (as observed by calling the Clock function with the same Task_Id).
An upper bound on the execution time of a call
to the Clock function, in processor clock cycles.
Upper bounds on the execution times of the operators
of the type CPU_Time, in processor clock cycles.
Documentation Requirement: The metrics
for execution time.
Implementations targeted to machines with word size smaller than 32 bits
may omit need not
the full range and granularity
of the CPU_Time type.
When appropriate, implementations should provide configuration mechanisms
to change the value of CPU_Tick.
Implementation Advice: When appropriate,
implementations should provide configuration mechanisms to change the
value of Execution_Time.CPU_Tick.
Extensions to Ada 95
Incompatibilities With Ada 2005
Function Clock_For_Interrupts, and constants Interrupt_Clocks_Supported
and Separate_Interrupt_Clocks_Supported are added to Execution_Time.
If Execution_Time is referenced in a use_clause
and an entity E
with a defining_identifier
of one of the added entities is defined in a package that is also referenced
in a use_clause
the entity E
may no longer be use-visible, resulting in errors.
This should be rare and is easily fixed if it does occur.
Wording Changes from Ada 2005
If Interrupt_Clocks_Supported is True, it is now possible to determine
the execution time of interrupt handlers. This is not an inconsistency,
as not charging any task for such time was a legitimate implementation
for Ada 2005.
Ada 2005 and 2012 Editions sponsored in part by Ada-Europe