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!standard A.3.4          14-08-21 AI12-0127-1/01
!class Amendment 14-08-21
!status work item 14-08-21
!status received 14-07-14
!priority Medium
!difficulty Easy
!subject Partial aggregate notation
!summary
A notation for updating part of a record type is defined (where the remainder of the type is unchanged).
!problem
It is common to need to use an object of a composite type with just a small modification (often of a single component). This can be awkward to express in Ada.
For instance, consider a record type Rec with many components, one of which is Colour, a variable R of type Rec, and the need to call procedure Foo with R but using the Black colour.
There are two ways to do this in current Ada, but both are ugly. The first uses a temporary variable, a copy, and an assignment to the component:
declare T : Rec := R; begin T.Colour := Black; Foo (T); end;
The other way uses an aggregate listing all components of Rec, which is very cumbersome and a burden for maintenance:
Foo ((X => R.X, Y => R.Y, ...., Colour => Black));
This construct is especially common in postconditions. It's common for a subprogram only to change a small part of a large composite type.
procedure Foo (Fighters : in out Rec) with Post => (Fighters.Colour = Black and Fighters = (X => Fighters'Old.X, Y => Fighters'Old.Y, ... Shape => Trapazoid));
This is cumbersome enough that the Postcondition author might check the changed component and not even mention that the other components are unchanged.
Some better way to write these should be provided.
[Editor's note: Sorry, these identifiers reminded me of the title of one of my favorite albums of all time. It should be pretty obvious (at least after a visit to Wikipedia); I would have liked to work in the two "the"s but that was over the top.]
!proposal
A partial aggregate has the syntax:
(expression with delta record_component_association_list);
The expected type for the expression is the type of the aggregate.
No components are required for a partial aggregate, but any components that are part of the record type can be given. [This will require redoing the definition of "needed" in 4.3.1(9), but I think the rest of the rules work without change.] We need some rule to deal with the case where one or more discriminants are given in the association list; in such a case, components dependent on that discriminant would have to be "needed". (An alternative would be to disallow changing discriminants at all in a partial aggregate, but that sounds like it would be limiting.
The dynamic semantics is that the given components are evaluated as usual, and any components not given come from the object denoted by the expression.
[Note: I've made no attempt to define these for array types. That would be natural, but it would be harder to reuse the existing wording for array components, especially as positional components don't even have association syntax. There's no close analog in the language today as there is for records. Probably much of 4.3.3 would have to be rewritten to support using these in partial aggregates.]
!wording
** TBD: this would be a new aggregate subclause (A.3.4).
!discussion
SPARK 2014 defines an attribute Update for this purpose. Using this attribute, the call in the question can be expressed as:
Foo (R'Update(Color => Black));
We believe it is better to use aggregate syntax for this, as we certainly want aggregate semantics relative to temporaries, build-in-place, limited types, resolution, and the like to apply. Additionally, by using aggregate notation, we can reuse some of the existing definitions for aggregate elements.
!examples
Using this facility, the initial example in the !problem can be written:
Foo ((R with delta Colour => Black));
The postcondition example can be written as:
procedure Foo (Fighters : in out Rec) with Post => (Fighters.Colour = Black and Fighters = (Fighters'Old with delta Shape => Trapazoid));
!ASIS
No ASIS impact.
!ACATS test
ACATS B-Tests and C-Tests are needed to test the implementation of this feature.
!appendix

topic        Adding partial aggregate functionality to Ada
!reference    Ada 2012 RM{clause unsure}
!from        Simon Clubley 2014-07-13
!keywords    partial aggregate device register bitfields atomic updating

[The original motivation for this proposal was the simultaneous updating of
multiple bitfields in a device register. However, discussions in comp.lang.ada
have revealed a wide range of potential uses for this notation which would allow
these other existing uses to be expressed more cleanly. The examples
demonstrating the wider potential of this proposal were provided by Niklas
Holsti.]

Background
----------
Ada can model the bitfields in a device register as a record type containing
those bitfields and can map an instance of that record type to the address of
that device register.

However, sometimes there is a requirement to be able to update a subset of those
bitfields as an atomic operation while preserving the contents of the other
bitfields in the record.

In Ada, the only way to do this (apart from C style bitmasks on an integer
variable) is to read the device register into a temporary instance of the record
type, modify the temporary variable and write the temporary variable back to the
device register.

This, to put it mildly, is ugly.

Normal (non-atomic) records also have similar issues.

For normal records, consider a record type Rec with many components, one of
which is Colour, a variable R of type Rec, and the need to call procedure Foo
twice, once using R with its own Colour, and once with R but using the Black
colour.

There are two ways to do this in current Ada, but both are ugly. The first uses
a temporary variable, a copy, and an assignment to the component:

   declare
      T : Rec := R;
   begin
      Foo (R);
      T.Colour := Black;
      Foo (T);
   end;

The other way uses an aggregate listing all components of Rec, which is very
cumbersome and a burden for maintenance:

   Foo (R);
   Foo ((X => R.X, Y => R.Y, ...., Colour => Black));

Proposal
--------
An elegant solution for these problems would be a new partial aggregate syntax
in which the list of record components to be modified would be listed along with
their new values.

One suggested syntax would be:

    A := (A changing C => D, E => F);

or

    A := (A updating C => D, E => F);

where A is a record and C and E are record components.

[When this syntax discussion took place in comp.lang.ada, one suggestion for the
keyword was "overriding" but I didn't like that because that keyword made it
seem as if A was the one doing the overriding, not the later C and E
references.]

For an Atomic record, the compiler would generate a sequence which performs an
atomic read of the whole record into a compiler generated temporary, modifies
this temporary with the new component values, then performs an atomic write of
this temporary back to the whole record.

As the sequence would be performed on the record as a whole, C.6(15) would be
guaranteed to apply. This means there would be a single read of the device
register and a single write to the device register.

For the normal record example above, one could simply write instead

   Foo (R);
   Foo ((R changing Colour => Black));

which is much more elegant than the above methods currently provided by Ada.

In addition, Niklas also provided the following array aggregate example:

   type Month_Days is array (Month) of Positive;

   Normal_Year_Days : constant Month_Days :=
      (Jan => 31, Feb => 28, Mar => 31, ..., Dec => 31);

   Leap_Year_Days : constant Month_Days :=
      (Normal_Year_Days changing Feb => 29);

It was also suggested partial aggregates could be of use in contracts within Ada
2012 and also had some uses within SPARK. However, this is one area I currently
have no experience with, so I reproduce the following example as-is:

|I have not yet used Ada 2012 contracts in my programming, but I believe
|that partial aggregates would be quite useful in post-conditions, to
|express that some "out" value is the same as some "in" value except for
|changes to certain components:
|
|   with Post => X = (X'old changing Colour => Black)

Regarding the use of a new keyword, I do think we need a new keyword because we
are talking about adding a subset update capability to Ada and that new usage
should stand out in any code.

****************************************************************

From: Tucker Taft
Sent: Tuesday, July 15, 2014  11:49 AM

Interestingly, SPARK 2014 has a capability almost exactly matching this, using
an attribute "'Update"; for example:

    T : Rec := R'Update (Colour => Black);

or

    Foo (R'Update (Colour => Black));

I believe this attribute is also available in recent releases of GNAT, though
clearly at this stage it is non portable.

****************************************************************

From: Tucker Taft
Sent: Tuesday, July 15, 2014   5:46 PM

Steve Baird had told me about this attribute in Paris. One thing almost everyone
I've talked to about it agrees is that this is a hack as an attribute -- this is
a kind of aggregate and ought to look like it.

Attributes are supposed to be kinds of function calls, but it's not possible to
write this Update attribute as a function call. Moreover, we would want all of
the aggregate rules to apply to the contents, and there aren't function calls
like:
    R'Update (Primary_Color => True); -- Primary_Color is a subtype with a static predicate or
    R'Update (1..5 => True);

Most likely, we'd want the aggregate rules to apply to the result, as well
(build-in-place, etc. -- but here at least a function call is consistent with
aggregates).

SPARK had to make this an attribute because they couldn't add new syntax.
That's no reason for Ada itself to limit itself in such a way. (As one Tucker
Taft has said in the past, new features shouldn't look "bolted-on", and I can't
imagine a worse "bolt-on" than using an attribute with aggregate semantics
instead of a proper aggregate.)

Ergo, this phony attribute should stay a SPARK-only thing; Ada needs a proper
aggregate syntax for this.

****************************************************************

From: Simon Clubley
Sent: Wednesday, July 16, 2014  4:25 PM

> Interestingly, SPARK 2014 has a capability almost exactly matching
> this, using an attribute "'Update"; for example:
>
>     T : Rec := R'Update (Colour => Black);
>
> or
>
>     Foo (R'Update (Colour => Black));
>
> I believe this attribute is also available in recent releases of
> GNAT, though clearly at this stage it is non portable.

Thanks. Yes, it is in GNAT. I did notice

   http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gnat_rm/Attribute-Update.html

is silent about if C.6(15) is guaranteed to apply when R (in your
example) is Atomic.

> Steve Baird had told me about this attribute in Paris. One thing
> almost everyone I've talked to about it agrees is that this is a hack
> as an attribute -- this is a kind of aggregate and ought to look like it.

I agree with this; I think a "real" partial aggregate syntax is required.

Are there any thoughts on how the proposed syntax could be improved ?

> Ergo, this phony attribute should stay a SPARK-only thing; Ada needs a
> proper aggregate syntax for this.

Is there support here for adding partial aggregates to the next version of Ada?

When combined with an Atomic record, such syntax would allow the simultaneous
updating of multiple bitfields within a record mapped to a device register. It
would also be useful in a more general way as shown by the examples provided in
comp.lang.ada and reproduced in my submission.

****************************************************************

From: Steve Baird
Sent: Tuesday, July 22, 2014  12:41 PM

> I think a "real" partial aggregate syntax is required.
> Are there any thoughts on how the proposed syntax could be improved ?

Randy and I have discussed the possibility of using extension aggregate syntax
except using "with delta" in place of "with".

Given
    type T is record F1, F2, F3, F4 : Integer; end record;
    X : T;
and then taking this approach
    X'Update (F3 => 123, F4 => 456);
could be expressed as
    (X with delta F3 => 123, F4 => 456);

At this point this is nothing more than an idea that came up in conversation.

****************************************************************

From: Randy Brukardt
Sent: Tuesday, July 22, 2014  1:08 PM

But of course one that will be included in the AI associated with this thread.
So the idea will at least be on the radar.

****************************************************************

From: Mark Lorenzen
Sent: Wednesday, July 23, 2014  4:12 AM

> I agree with this; I think a "real" partial aggregate syntax is
> required.
>
> Are there any thoughts on how the proposed syntax could be improved ?

It could maybe be done as for an extension aggregate, unless that would confuse
users:

Foo (R with Colour => Black);

or

S := (R with Colour => Black);

****************************************************************

From: Simon Clubley
Sent: Wednesday, July 23, 2014  3:05 PM

> Randy and I have discussed the possibility of using extension
> aggregate syntax except using "with delta" in place of "with".
>
> Given
>     type T is record F1, F2, F3, F4 : Integer; end record;
>     X : T;
> and then taking this approach
>     X'Update (F3 => 123, F4 => 456);
> could be expressed as
>     (X with delta F3 => 123, F4 => 456);

I don't like the idea of seeing just the exact same "with" extension aggregate
notation re-used for partial aggregates as I think that would be too confusing.

However, while I think new syntax such as "changing" would be best, if the
desire is to re-use existing keywords, then I think your "with delta" suggestion
is by far the best of the suggestions I have seen so far and would not be
confused with an extension aggregate.

****************************************************************

From: Christoph Grein
Sent: Thursday, July 24, 2014  5:13 AM

The problem with these two reserved words
    F (X with delta F3 => 123, F4 => 456);
is that one might easily forget the delta and, with some overloading of F, might
arrive at a different legal interpretation.

****************************************************************

From: Tucker Taft
Sent: Sunday, July 27, 2014  3:23 PM

Somewhat unlikely because Ada requires that there be a unique interpretation
provided by context before looking inside an aggregate.

****************************************************************

From: Steve Baird
Sent: Saturday, June 27, 2015  9:17 AM

The Update attribute provides a way of overwriting specified components of a
copy of a given composite value.

For a prefix ``X`` that denotes an object of a nonlimited record type or record
extension ``T``, the attribute

::

      X'Update ( record_component_association_list )

is defined and yields a value of type ``T`` and is a *record update expression*.

For a prefix ``X`` that denotes an object of a nonlimited one dimensional array
type ``T``, the attribute

::

      X'Update ( array_component_association {, array_component_association} )

is defined and yields a value of type ``T`` and is an *array update expression*.

For a prefix ``X`` that denotes an object of a nonlimited multidimensional
array type ``T``, the attribute

::

     X'Update ( multidimensional_array_component_association
             {, multidimensional_array_component_association} )

is defined and yields a value of type ``T`` and is a *multi-dimensional array
update*.  Where ``multidimensional_array_component_association`` has the following
syntax:

.. centered:: **Syntax**

::

   multidimensional_array_component_association ::=
     index_expression_list_list => expression
   index_expression_list_list ::=
     index_expression_list { | index_expression_list }
   index_expression_list ::=
     ( expression {, expression} )

.. centered:: **Legality Rules**

1. The box symbol, <>, may not appear in any ``expression`` appearing
    in an *update expression*.

.. centered:: **Dynamic Semantics**


2. In all cases (i.e., whether ``T`` is a record type, a record
    extension type, or an array type - see below), evaluation of
    ``X'Update`` begins with the creation of an anonymous object of
    type ``T`` which is initialized to the value of ``X`` in the same
    way as for an occurrence of ``X'Old`` (except that the object is
    constrained by its initial value but not constant).


3. Next, components of this object are updated as described in the
    following subsections. The attribute reference then denotes a
    constant view of this updated object. The master and accessibility
    level of this object are defined as for the anonymous object of an
    aggregate.

4. The assignments to components of the result object described in the
    following subsections are assignment operations and include
    performance of any checks associated with evaluation of the target
    component name or with implicit conversion of the source value to
    the component subtype.


Record Update Expressions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

For a record update expression of type ``T`` the following are required.

.. centered:: **Legality Rules**


5. The ``record_component_association_list`` shall have one or more
    ``record_component_associations``, each of which shall have a
    non-**others** ``component_choice_list`` and an expression.


6. Each ``selector_name`` of each ``record_component_name`` shall denote a
    distinct non discriminant component of ``T``.


7. Each ``record_component_association``'s associated components shall
    all be of the same type. The expected type and applicable index
    constraint of the expression is defined as for a
    ``record_component_association`` occurring within a record
    aggregate.


8. Each selector of all ``component_choice_lists`` of a record
    update expression shall denote a distinct component.



.. centered:: **Dynamic Semantics**


9. For each component for which an expression is provided, the
    expression value is assigned to the corresponding component of the
    result object. The order in which the components are updated is
    unspecified.

[Components in a record update expression must be distinct.  The following is
illegal

::

   Some_Record'Update
     (Field_1 => ... ,
      Field_2 => ... ,
      Field_1 => ... ); -- illegal; components not distinct

because the order of component updates is unspecified.]

Array Update Expressions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

For an array update expression of type ``T`` the following are required.

.. centered:: **Legality Rules**


10. Each ``array_component_association`` of the attribute reference
     shall have one or more ``array_component_associations``, each of
     which shall have an expression.

11. The expected type and applicable index constraint of the
     expression is defined as for an ``array_component_association``
     occurring within an array aggregate of type ``T``. The expected
     type for each ``discrete_choice`` is the index type of ``T``.


12. The reserved word **others** shall not occur as a
     ``discrete_choice`` of an ``array_component_association`` of the
     ``attribute_reference``.


.. centered:: **Dynamic Semantics**


13. The discrete choices and array component expressions are
     evaluated. Each array component expression is evaluated once for
     each associated component, as for an array aggregate. For each
     such associated component of the result object, the expression
     value is assigned to the component.


14. Evaluations and updates are performed in the order in which the
     ``array_component_associations`` are given; within a single
     ``array_component_association``, in the order of the
     ``discrete_choice_list``; and within the range of a single
     ``discrete_choice``, in ascending order.


[Note: the ``Update`` attribute for an array object allows multiple
assignments to the same component, as in either

::

   Some_Array'Update (1 .. 10 => True, 5 => False)

or

::

   Some_Array'Update (Param_1'Range => True, Param_2'Range => False)
   -- ok even if the two ranges overlap]

Multi-dimensional Array Update Expressions ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

For a multi-dimensional array update expression of type ``T`` the following are required.

.. centered:: **Legality Rules**

15. The expected type and applicable index constraint of the
     expression of a ``multidimensional_array_component_association``
     are defined as for the expression of an
     ``array_component_association`` occurring within an array
     aggregate of type ``T``.


16. The length of each ``index_expression_list`` shall equal the
     dimensionality of ``T``. The expected type for each expression in
     an ``index_expression_list`` is the corresponding index type of
     ``T``.

.. centered:: **Dynamic Semantics**


17. For each ``multidimensional_array_component`` association (in the
     order in which they are given) and for each
     ``index_expression_list`` (in the order in which they are given),
     the index values of the ``index_expression_list`` and the
     expression are evaluated (in unspecified order) and the expression
     value is assigned to the component of the result object indexed by
     the given index values. Each array component expression is
     evaluated once for each associated ``index_expression_list``.

****************************************************************

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