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!standard 9.5(17/3)          16-08-29 AI12-0064-2/03
!standard 9.5.1(8)
!standard 9.5.1(9)
!standard 9.5.1(10)
!standard 9.5.1(11)
!standard 9.5.1(12)
!standard 9.5.1(13)
!standard 9.5.1(14)
!standard 9.5.1(15)
!standard 9.5.1(16)
!standard 9.5.1(18)
!standard 3.10.2(33/3)
!standard 4.5(9)
!standard 4.6(24.21/4)
!standard 4.9(8)
!standard 13.1.1(17/4)
!standard 13.13.2(37/1)
!class Amendment 15-10-17
!status work item 15-12-18
!status received 15-10-17
!priority Medium
!difficulty Medium
!subject Nonblocking subprograms
Aspect and attribute Nonblocking are added.
During a protected action, it is a bounded error to invoke an operation that is potentially blocking. There is currently no mechanism (other than a comment) to specify that a given subprogram is intended to be safely callable during a protected action (i.e., that the subprogram will not invoke an operation that is potentially blocking). This seems like a useful part of a subprogram's "contract" that should be (optionally) specifiable at the point of a subprogram's declaration.
[Summary of changes for October 2016 meeting:
Defined the term "allows blocking", as "not nonblocking" or "aspect Nonblocking has the value False" are awkward.
Redid the definition of the aspect so that it is defined for all program units and for task entries. (Even though not all entities allow it to be specified.) We also defined the aspect Nonblocking to always have the value False for entries.
Changed default value of S'Nonblocking for a formal subprogram in the generic specification (as requested in Pisa).
Removed special case for synchronized interfaces, and added an AARM note to explain why that's not needed. (also from Pisa).
Removed special case for renames of entries, (and entry calls in general), and added an AARM note to explain why.
Added an AARM note to highlight that a routine that overridings an allows blocking routine (like Finalize) can still be declared nonblocking itself. (Else any non-trivial finalization, allocation, and streaming could never be used in nonblocking code.)
Added changes to 13.1 and 13.1.1 to eliminate the "no language-defined aspectcs can be specified on generic formal parameters", 'cause it's clearly not true.
Changed "program unit" to "entity" in various places, as formal parameters, access-to-subprogram types, and other things aren't program units.
Moved most of the text from 9.5.1 to 9.5 along with these new definitions.
Redid the note at the end of 9.5.1 to suggest the use of aspect Nonblocking on protected units, as well as Detect_Blocking to clean up anything missed.
Started work on a list of changes to language-defined units. This pointed out the need for the nonblocking attribute for formal packages, so that was defined.]
[Editor's note: Individual rule changes scattered throughout the Standard follow this primary definition.]
Add after 9.5(17/3):
Static Semantics
For a program unit, for a task entry, for a formal package, formal subprogram, formal object of an anonymous access-to-subprogram type, and for a named access-to-subprogram type (including a formal type), the following language-defined representation aspect is defined:
The type of aspect Nonblocking is Boolean. When aspect Nonblocking is False for an entity, the entity might contain a potentially blocking operation; such an entity allows blocking. If the aspect is True for an entity, the entity is said to be nonblocking. This aspect is inherited by overridings of dispatching subprograms.
[Editor's note: This last sentence seems like nonsense, given that we want to allow nonblocking overridings of allows blocking subprograms. (If we don't allow that, then no finalization, allocation, or streaming could ever be nonblocking, which seems wrong.) I think it really means that the inherited primitive subprograms inherit the attribute unless otherwise specified. But maybe it's just trying to set a default?? Dunno.]
AARM Ramification: specifying Nonblocking is False imposes no requirements. Specifying Nonblocking is True imposes additional compile-time checks to prevent blocking, but does not prevent deadlock. pragma Detect_Blocking can be used to ensure that Program_Error is raised in a deadlock situation.
The Nonblocking aspect may be specified for all entities for which it is defined, except for protected operations and task entries. If directly specified, the aspect_definition shall be a static expression.
For a generic instantiation, the aspect is determined by the setting for the generic unit[Redundant, re-evaluated based on the actual parameters.] If the aspect is directly specified for an instance, the value shall be confirming.
AARM Ramification: The value for the generic unit might be different than that for the instance if it involves one or more Nonblocking attribute references.
[Editor's note: I'm presuming that all of the contents of the instance are re-evaluated by the rules of 12.3. I didn't go look that up, so we might need a special rule to force that; but it would be the expected "macro" behavior.]
For a (protected or task) entry, the value of the aspect is False.
For any other program unit, formal package, formal subprogram, formal object, or (formal) access-to-subprogram type, the aspect is determined by the setting for the innermost program unit enclosing the entity.
If not specified for a library unit, the default is True if the library unit is declared pure and is not a generic unit, and False otherwise.
A nonblocking program unit shall not contain, other than within nested units with Nonblocking specified as False, a call on a callable entity for which the Nonblocking aspect is False, nor shall it contain any of the following:
* a select_statement;
* an accept_statement;
* a delay_statement;
* an abort_statement;
* task creation or activation.
AARM Ramification: Implicit calls for finalization, storage pools, and the like are covered by the above prohibition. The rules above say "a call", not "an explicit call". Such calls are considered statically bound when that is possible, that is when the controlling object has a known specific type (even if the actual implementation uses dispatching).
AARM Discussion: We don't need to specially worry about subprograms of limited interfaces that are implemented by entries, as any such subprogram necessarily has the value False for the Nonblocking aspect, and thus is already covered by the prohibition against calling such subprograms.
Similarly, we don't need to worry specially about entry calls, as they will be detected by the prohibition against calls to entities with the Nonblocking aspect False. End AARM Discussion.
For the purposes of the above rule, an entry_body is considered nonblocking if the immediately enclosing protected unit is nonblocking.
AARM Reason: An entry always allows blocking (by rule); but we want to be able to compile-time check for most violations of prohibition against potentially blocking operations in a protected action (in 9.5.1). We do that by using the nonblocking status of the protected unit as the controlling factor, and enforce that by not allowing the specification of the Nonblocking aspect for any protected operation.
A subprogram shall be nonblocking if it overrides a nonblocking dispatching operation. An entry shall not implement a nonblocking procedure. In an Access attribute_reference for a nonblocking access-to-subprogram type, the subprogram denoted by the prefix shall be nonblocking.
AARM Discussion: Rules elsewhere in the standard (4.6 and 3.10.2) ensure that access-to-subprogram conversion and the Access attribute enforce nonblocking.
AARM Ramification: A nonblocking subprogram can override one that allows blocking, but the reverse is illegal. Thus one can declare a Finalize subprogram to be nonblocking, even though it overrides a routine that allows blocking. (This works as a nonblocking subprogram allows a strict subset of the operations allowed in allows blocking subprograms, so calling such a subprogram as if it allows blocking -- as is necessary in a dispatching call -- is harmless.)
In a generic instantiation:
* the actual subprogram corresponding to a nonblocking formal subprogram shall be nonblocking (an actual that is an entry is not permitted in this case);
* the actual type corresponding to a nonblocking formal access-to-subprogram type shall be nonblocking;
* the actual object corresponding to a formal object of a nonblocking access-to-subprogram type shall be of a nonblocking access-to-subprogram type;
* the actual instance corresponding to a nonblocking formal package shall be nonblocking.
In addition to the places where Legality Rules normally apply (see 12.3), the above rules apply also in the private part of an instance of a generic unit.
AARM Ramification: For a generic formal parameter to be nonblocking (thus, for these rules to apply), either it or some enclosing unit has to explicitly specify aspect Nonblocking to be True. In particular, these rules do not apply when it or some enclosing unit specifies aspect Nonblocking to be an expression involving attribute Nonblocking of a generic formal parameter (see below). However, in such a case, these rules do apply in the instance of the specification of the generic unit (the normal re-checking is needed). For instance, the body of an expression function might make a prohibited call.
For a prefix S that denotes a subprogram (including a formal subprogram):
Denotes whether subprogram S is considered nonblocking; the value of this attribute is of type Boolean, Redundant[and is always static].
The prefix S shall statically denote a subprogram.
AARM Ramification: The evaluation of the prefix S will have no effect, which is necessary for S'Nonblocking to be static. For the intended use in aspect specifications, we don't want any evaluation, as it would happen at some freezing point.
If S denotes a formal subprogram of a generic unit G, the value of S'Nonblocking is True within the body of G or within the body of a generic unit declared within the declarative region of G, and False otherwise. Otherwise, S'Nonblocking returns the value of the Nonblocking aspect of S.
AARM Reason: Inside the generic body of G (and the bodies of generic child units of G), we assume the worst about S'Nonblocking, so we enforce the nonblocking restrictions on entities that use it to define their own nonblocking aspect. In the specification of G, we assume-the-best and expect the Legality Rules (all of them) to be rechecked in the instance. This does not impose any requirement on the formal subprogram (that can be done by specifying the value of the aspect).
AARM To Be Honest: In an instance, S'Nonblocking returns the value of the nonblocking aspect of the actual subprogram, even if referenced through the name of the formal.
For a prefix P that denotes a package (including a formal package):
Denotes whether package P is considered nonblocking; the value of this attribute is of type Boolean, Redundant[and is always static].
If P denotes a formal package of a generic unit G, the value of P'Nonblocking is True within the body of G or within the body of a generic unit declared within the declarative region of G, and False otherwise. Otherwise, P'Nonblocking returns the value of the Nonblocking aspect of P.
For a prefix S that denotes an access-to-subprogram subtype (including formal access-to-subprogram subtypes):
Denotes whether a subprogram designated by a value of type S is considered nonblocking; the value of this attribute is of type Boolean, Redundant[and is always static].
The prefix S shall statically denote a subtype. [Editor's note: is it possible for it not to? If not, we don't need this rule.]
[Editor's note: The following is moved from 9.5.1, including the AARM notes with minimal changes. The entry_call_statement rule had been previously identified as needing a change (it's really broken, having nothing specifically to do with this AI).]
The following are defined to be potentially blocking operations:
AARM Reason: The primary purpose of these rules is to define what operations are not allowed in a protected operation (blocking is not allowed). Some of these operations are not directly blocking. However, they are still treated as potentially blocking, because allowing them in a protected action might impose an undesirable implementation burden.
* a select_statement;
* an accept_statement;
* an entry_call_statement, or a call on a procedure that renames or is implemented by an entry;
* a delay_statement;
* an abort_statement;
* task creation or activation;
* an external call on a protected subprogram (or an external requeue) with the same target object as that of the protected action;
AARM Reason: This is really a deadlocking call, rather than a blocking call, but we include it in this list for simplicity.
* a call on a subprogram whose body contains a potentially blocking operation.
AARM Reason: This allows an implementation to check and raise Program_Error as soon as a subprogram is called, rather than waiting to find out whether it actually reaches the potentially blocking operation. This in turn allows the potentially blocking operation check to be performed prior to run time in some environments.
[Editor's note: End mostly unchanged text. The last sentence of the last note perhaps should be struck, since aspect Nonblocking serves that purpose. I considered trying to unify Nonblocking and potentially blocking further, but that seemed messy and error-prone. One could imagine replacing the last rule with "a call on a subprogram with Nonblocking = False", but that would expose a lot of xisting code to a Bounded Error (since the default for Nonblocking is False, and that has to be the case for compatibility).]
Language-defined subprograms for which the Nonblocking aspect has the value False [Redundant: (whether explicitly or by inheritance)] are potentially blocking.
[Editor's note: This is what remains of 9.5.1(18). The old definition should be reflected in the aspect values for language-defined routines.]
Modify 9.5.1(8):
During a protected action, it is a bounded error to invoke an operation that is potentially blocking.[ The following are defined to be potentially blocking operations:]
[Editor's note: This is no longer a definition for potentially blocking.]
Delete 9.5.1(9-16, 18) and the associated AARM notes.
Replace note 9.5.1(22.1/2) with:
The aspect Nonblocking can be used on the definition of a protected unit in order to reject most attempts to use potentially blocking operations within the protected unit (see 9.5). The pragma Detect_Blocking may be used to ensure that any remaining executions of potentially blocking operations during a protected action raise Program_Error. See H.5.
AARM Discussion: The deadlock case cannot be detected at compile-time, so pragma Detect_Blocking is needed to give it consistent behavior.
Modify 3.10.2(33/3):
... The accessibility level of P shall not be statically deeper than that of S. {If S is nonblocking, P shall be nonblocking. }In addition to the places where Legality Rules normally apply (see 12.3), {these rules apply}[this rule applies] also in the private part of an instance of a generic unit.
Add after 4.5(9): [General rules for predefined operators]
Predefined operators other than "=" for record types are nonblocking; the predefined "=" operator for record types allows blocking.
AARM Reason: Record equality can be composed of operations including user-defined "=" operators, which might allow blocking. We can't introduce an incompatibility here, so we have to assume the worst.
[Editor's note: We might be able to do better here for untagged types by examining the type definition, but sadly for tagged types we have to allow it to be blocking as some overriding might need that (and all of the overridings need to be the same). As such, we do not bother with the extra complexity of rules to allow some record equality to be nonblocking.]
Add after 4.6(24.21/4): [Type conversion Legality Rules for access-to-subprogram types]
* If the target type is nonblocking, the operand type shall be nonblocking.
Add after 4.9(8):
* an attribute_reference whose designator is Nonblocking;
Modify the AARM Note 13.1(9.d/3):
...most aspects do not need this complexity[ (including all language-defined aspects as of this writing)], we avoid the complexity...
[Editor's note: This and the next couple of changes are needed as Nonblocking can be specified on generic formal parameters, and it surely is language-defined. In this particular case, the rule itself is fine (it says "Unless otherwise specified...").]
Delete "a generic_formal_parameter_declaration" from 13.1.1(17/4) [since we allow specifying Nonblocking on formals.]
Modify the AARM Note 13.1.1(17.a/3):
Implementation-defined aspects can be allowed on these, of course; the implementation will need to define the semantics. In {addition}[particular], {the language does not define default aspect matching rules for generic formals; only the handful of aspects allowed on formals have such rules. Therefore,} the implementation will need to define actual [type] matching rules for any aspects allowed on formal types[; there are no default matching rules defined by the language.]
Add after 13.13.2(37/1):
The default implementations of stream-oriented attributes has the value False for aspect Nonblocking.
AARM Reason: The underlying Read/Write operations are called via dispatching calls. Since we cannot afford any incompatibility with existing Ada code, the stream operations allow blocking. Thus the stream-oriented attributes must allow blocking as well.
Wording for definition of language-defined packages and subprograms is TBD.
[Editor's note: We intend that language-defined subprograms are nonblocking unless this Standard says otherwise. Specifically, 9.5.1(18) said (before we deleted it above):
Certain language-defined subprograms are potentially blocking. In particular, the subprograms of the language-defined input-output packages that manipulate files (implicitly or explicitly) are potentially blocking. Other potentially blocking subprograms are identified where they are defined. When not specified as potentially blocking, a language-defined subprogram is nonblocking.
Non-generic units that are pure are automatically nonblocking (these are noted below). Other unit should explicitly have Nonblocking specified.
We'll handle the containers in AI12-0112-1 (the AI that defines preconditions for the container operations); it probably makes the most sense to add all of the contracts at once for those.
The entire list of non-container units is:
{{Note: I've only done part of this list; the units that don't start with Ada haven't been handled yet.}}
Ada.Assertions 11.4.2 - Pure Ada.Asynchronous_Task_Control D.11 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Calendar 9.6 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Calendar.Arithmetic 9.6.1 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Calendar.Formatting 9.6.1 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Calendar.Time_Zones 9.6.1 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Characters A.3.1 - Pure Ada.Conversions A.3.4 - Pure Ada.Handling A.3.2 - Pure Ada.Latin_1 A.3.3 - Pure Ada.Command_Line A.15 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Complex_Text_IO G.1.3 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Decimal F.2 - Pure Ada.Direct_IO A.8.4 - Nonblocking => False (I/O) Ada.Directories A.16 - Nonblocking => False (I/O) - Full_Name through Compose should have Nonblocking => True (as they are just string manipulation routines). Ada.Directories.Hierarchical_File_Names A.16.1 - Nonblocking => True (these are all string manipulation routines). Ada.Directories.Information A.16 - (**** Impl def) Dispatching D.2.1
EDF D.2.6 Non_Preemptive D.2.4 Round_Robin D.2.5
Dynamic_Priorities D.5.1 Environment_Variables A.17 Exceptions 11.4.1 Execution_Time D.14
Group_Budgets D.14.2 Interrupts D.14.3 Timers D.14.1
Ada.Finalization 7.6 - Nonblocking => False (*** user overriding) Float_Text_IO A.10.9 Float_Wide_Text_IO A.11 Float_Wide_Wide_Text_IO A.11 Integer_Text_IO A.10.8 Integer_Wide_Text_IO A.11 Integer_Wide_Wide_Text_IO A.11 Interrupts C.3.2
Names C.3.2
IO_Exceptions A.13 Iterator_Interfaces 5.5.1 Locales A.19 Numerics A.5
Complex_Arrays G.3.2 Complex_Elementary_Functions G.1.2 Complex_Types G.1.1 Discrete_Random A.5.2 Elementary_Functions A.5.1 Float_Random A.5.2 Generic_Complex_Arrays G.3.2 Generic_Complex_Elementary_Functions
Generic_Complex_Types G.1.1 Generic_Elementary_Functions A.5.1 Generic_Real_Arrays G.3.1 Real_Arrays G.3.1
Real_Time D.8
Timing_Events D.15
Sequential_IO A.8.1 Storage_IO A.9 Ada.Streams 13.13.1 - Nonblocking => False (*** user overriding) Ada.Streams.Stream_IO A.12.1 - Nonblocking => False Strings A.4.1
Bounded A.4.4
Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.10 Hash A.4.9 Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.9 Less_Case_Insensitive A.4.10
Fixed A.4.3
Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.10 Hash A.4.9 Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.9 Less_Case_Insensitive A.4.10
Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.10 Hash A.4.9 Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.9 Less_Case_Insensitive A.4.10 Maps A.4.2
Constants A.4.6
Unbounded A.4.5
Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.10 Hash A.4.9 Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.9 Less_Case_Insensitive A.4.10
UTF_Encoding A.4.11
Conversions A.4.11 Strings A.4.11 Wide_Strings A.4.11 Wide_Wide_Strings A.4.11
Wide_Bounded A.4.7
Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.7 Wide_Hash A.4.7 Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.7
Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.7 Wide_Fixed A.4.7
Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.7 Wide_Hash A.4.7 Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.7
Wide_Hash A.4.7 Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.7 Wide_Maps A.4.7
Wide_Constants A.4.7
Wide_Unbounded A.4.7
Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.7 Wide_Hash A.4.7 Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.7
Wide_Wide_Bounded A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Fixed A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Hash A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive - A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Maps A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Constants A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Unbounded A.4.8
Wide_Wide_Equal_Case_Insensitive A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash A.4.8 Wide_Wide_Hash_Case_Insensitive A.4.8
Ada.Synchronous_Barriers D.10.1 - Nonblocking => True (Wait_For_Release has Nonblocking => False by D.10.1(14/3) - which should be deleted). Ada.Synchronous_Task_Control D.10 - Nonblocking => True (Suspend_Until_True has Nonblocking => False by D.10(10), that sentence should be deleted). Ada.Synchronous_Task_Control.EDF D.10 - Nonblocking => False (by D.10(10.1/3), that sentence should be deleted.) Ada.Tags 3.9 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Tags.Generic_Dispatching_Constructor 3.9 - Nonblocking => Constructor'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Task_Attributes C.7.2 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Task_Identification C.7.1 - Nonblocking => True (Abort_Task has Nonblocking => False by C.7.1(16) - which should be deleted) Ada.Task_Termination C.7.3 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Text_IO A.10.1 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Text_IO.Bounded_IO A.10.11 - Nonblocking => Bounded'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Text_IO.Complex_IO G.1.3 - Nonblocking => Complex_Types'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Text_IO.Editing F.3.3 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Text_IO.Text_Streams A.12.2 - Nonblocking => False Ada.Text_IO.Unbounded_IO A.10.12 - Nonblocking => False Ada.Unchecked_Conversion 13.9 - Pure Ada.Unchecked_Deallocate_Subpool 13.11.5 - Nonblocking => False (*** user calls) Ada.Unchecked_Deallocation 13.11.2 - Nonblocking => True Ada.Wide_Characters A.3.1 - Pure Ada.Wide_Characters.Handling A.3.5 - Pure Ada.Wide_Text_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Wide_Text_IO.Complex_IO G.1.4 - Nonblocking => Complex_Types'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Wide_Text_IO.Editing F.3.4 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Wide_Text_IO.Text_Streams A.12.3 - Nonblocking => False Ada.Wide_Text_IO.Wide_Bounded_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => Wide_Bounded'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Wide_Text_IO.Wide_Unbounded_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => False Ada.Wide_Wide_Characters A.3.1 - Pure Ada.Wide_Wide_Characters.Handling A.3.6 - Pure Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO.Complex_IO G.1.4 - Nonblocking => Complex_Types'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO.Editing F.3.4 - Nonblocking => False (** String routines) Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO.Text_Streams A.12.3 - Nonblocking => False Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO.Wide_Wide_Bounded_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => Wide_Wide_Bounded'Nonblocking (* generic) Ada.Wide_Wide_Text_IO.Wide_Wide_Unbounded_IO A.11 - Nonblocking => False Interfaces B.2 - Pure Interfaces.C B.3 - Pure Interfaces.C.Pointers B.3.2 - Nonblocking => True Interfaces.C.Strings B.3.1 - Nonblocking => True Interfaces.COBOL B.4 - Nonblocking => True Interfaces.Fortran B.5 - Pure System 13.7 - Pure System.Address_To_Access_Conversions 13.7.2 - Nonblocking => True System.Machine_Code 13.8 - (**** Impl def) System.Multiprocessors D.16 - Nonblocking => True System.Multiprocessors.Dispatching_Domains D.16.1 - Nonblocking => True System.RPC E.5 - Nonblocking => False (E.5(23) says this explicitly; that paragraph should be deleted.) System.Storage_Elements 13.7.1 - Pure System.Storage_Pools 13.11 - Nonblocking => False (*** user overriding) System.Storage_Pools.Subpools 13.11.4 - Nonblocking => False (*** user overriding)
Items marked "(* generic)" have Nonblocking given as a formula. This automatically matches the nonblocking setting to that of the actual parameters (see the !discussion for more on this).
Items marked "(** String routines)" have Get/Put routines that operate only on Strings explicitly have Nonblocking => True given. That's in accordance with the AARM note 9.5.1(18.a) (and an old AI).
Items marked "(*** user overriding)" are mainly used to provide a framework for user code (as in storage pools or streams). Since all dispatching calls have to have the same value for nonblocking, and we have to keep compatibility with existing Ada code, we cannot make such packages (and types) nonblocking.
Items marked "(*** user calls)" make calls on code that is potentially user-defined via dispatching. These usually work in conjunction with types declared in packages associated with the previous item.
Items marked "(**** impl def)" have implementation-defined contents, so we need say nothing.
End lengthy editor's note.]
We considered changing the aspect name from "Nonblocking" to "Potentially_Blocking," as that matches RM terminology better, but we ultimately concluded that would be a mistake. Furthermore, "nonblocking" is used in 9.5.1, albeit somewhat informally. Were we to switch to Potentially_Blocking, the default would be True rather than False, which is unlike other Boolean aspects. Furthermore, with Potentially_Blocking => True, we wouldn't require that it be potentially blocking, merely allow it. Perhaps Allow_Blocking would be better, but that doesn't match RM terminology at all, and still has the "wrong" default.
We initially modeled this aspect after No_Return, which has a somewhat similar purpose and presumably has already worked out some of the needed rules. However, we have gone beyond that, because we now have nonblocking access-to-subprogram types, nonblocking formal subprograms, etc.
The rules do not allow calling "normal" subprograms from a nonblocking subprogram. This allows detecting any potentially blocking operations used in a nonblocking subprogram statically. This is important if pragma Detect_Blocking is used, as such detection is required. (Otherwise, this is just a bounded error and the "mistake" can be ignored with the usual consequences.)
We have provided package-level defaults, given that many packages will have all of their subprograms non-blocking. We chose to make the default for a declared pure, non-generic library unit to be nonblocking, as that is almost always the case, since blocking typically implies the use of some kind of global lock. We do not foresee significant incompatibilities, since declared pure library units may only depend on other declared pure library units. For pure generic units we leave the default at False for compatibility reasons, because these might have existing instances where an actual subprogram (or access-to-subprogram type) is potentially blocking.
We did not specify that protected subprograms are by default Nonblocking=>True, since that would be incompatible, as they then could not call subprograms with a default Nonblocking aspect value of False. It might be possible to specify Nonblocking=>True as the default for protected subprograms in a future version of the standard (and clearly an implementation could at least provide a warning when a call is made to a subprogram with Nonblocking of False). Because of the confusion related to the fact that protected operations are always required to be nonblocking at run-time, we don't allow specifying the attribute directly on an individual protected operation. However, we allow specifying Nonblocking on a protected unit to determine the setting for all of the enclosed protected operations.
We only allow specifying a confirming value of Nonblocking on a generic instantiation; the value of the aspect comes from the generic unit (possibly after re-evaluating the aspect based on the values of the actual parameters). Specifying a different value would simply be confusing, as it wouldn't change the enforcement of Legality Rules in the generic unit (and it would be wrong to supply a value of True for an instance of a unit that have the value of False, as in that case no rules would have been enforced in the body).
The attribute Nonblocking is primarily useful for use in the Nonblocking aspect of other subprograms, and mainly for the non-blocking property of formal subprograms.
We allow the prefix to be any subprogram to avoid having special cases, and as it may be useful to ensure that a group of subprograms all have the same contract. In the case of nonblocking, that could be accomplished with a constant, but in the case of other static contracts that we are considering like exception contracts (AI12-0015-1) and global contracts (AI12-0079-1), a mechanism to copy them will be valuable (especially as they may be lengthy). As we want all of the contracts to work as similarly as possible, we make the attribute Nonblocking as general as possible.
The primary use for this attribute is in aspects of generic units. The attribute makes it possible for a generic unit to have a nonblocking aspect that depends on those of the actual subprograms. That's especially important for the containers, which we want to be primarily nonblocking.
This mechanism takes some effort for the implementer of a generic unit, but it means that the instantiator of such a unit does not need to worry about nonblocking, as the most restrictive setting compatable with the actual subprograms will automatically be chosen.
Unfortunately, this mechanism doesn't have an obvious extension to support anonymous access-to-subprogram parameters; the type is anonymous and the actual is typically an Access attribute. One could imagine allowing the prefix to be a parameter, something like:
procedure Iterate
(Container : in Hashed_Maps;
Process : not null access procedure (Position : in Cursor)
when Nonblocking => Process'Nonblocking and
Hash'Nonblocking and Equivalent_Keys'Nonblocking);
But in that case the Nonblocking value would have to be determined based on the actuals of the call; it would be weird for the Legality of a call to depend on the details of actual parameters. Thus we didn't propose such a mechanism.
We could simplify this proposal further by dropping the ability to specify Nonblocking on generic formal parameters, and just depending on the Nonblocking attribute to handle that. That would eliminate the rules about generic formal matching. We didn't do that as that would require having nonblocking attributes for formal objects (which would reduce the value somewhat), and would eliminate the "easy" solution for new code (which is to simply require everything to be nonblocking). Not everyone needs to write the most flexible possible generics.
Comparing Alternative 1 with this proposal.
The problem with alternative 1 is that a generic unit like the containers can be set to nonblocking, but then using this with an allows blocking routine requires an explicit override by the user on the instance. Since the default for most routines is that they are not nonblocking, this could provide a significant compatibility problem.
An alternative for alternative 1 would be to declare units like the containers to be blocking; but then they can never be nonblocking (and we surely want to use them as nonblocking).
In contrast, this proposal puts all of the burden on the implementer of a package (where it should be) and none on the user of the package. Alternative 1 is definitely easier for the implementer of a package, and harder for a user.
Container usage examples:
Imagine that a user has an existing user-defined Hash function:
subtype Label is String (1..10); function Hash (Key : in Label) return Ada.Containers.Hash_Type;
With this proposal (as outlined in the example section below), if they don't care about nonblocking (as is likely to be the case for recompiling existing code), their existing instantation will compile with no problem:
package My_Hashed_Map is new Ada.Containers.Hashed_Map (Label, Element, Hash, "=");
If they do care about blocking behavior, they can add Nonblocking to Hash and they will get the Nonblocking behavior they want:
function Hash (Key : in Label) return Ada.Containers.Hash_Type with Nonblocking => True;
Alternatively, they could declare the instance to be Nonblocking:
package My_Hashed_Map is new Ada.Containers.Hashed_Map (Label, Element, Hash, "=") with Nonblocking => True;
which would cause an error (as Nonblocking is False), hopefully with an error message that Hash has Nonblocking set as False (since that's the default). With a good error message, the correct fix should be easy to find.
For alternative 1 (as described in AI12-0064-1/05), the situation is different.
The original instantation of:
package My_Hashed_Map is new Ada.Containers.Hashed_Map (Label, Element, Hash, "=");
is now illegal, as Hash has Nonblocking = False, and that fails to match the default for the formal parameter Hash (which is Nonblocking => True). Thus the user has to change their code and add Nonblocking => True to Hash or add Nonblocking => False to the instance My_Hashed_Map.
That doesn't seem good.
If the default of Ada.Containers.Hashed_Map is changed to False, then the above works, but there no longer is any way to get a Nonblocking container.
package My_Hashed_Map is new Ada.Containers.Hashed_Map (Label, Element, Hash, "=") with Nonblocking => True;
should be illegal in this case, as the restrictions were not enforced in the generic body.
There is one known problem with this proposal as it is written. The prefix of the Nonblocking attribute has to resolve without any context. That means that in many circumstances, overloaded prefixes aren't going to be usable. That could be a problem for operators (like "=" in the containers) that are widely used.
I considered using subprogram calls rather than subprogram names in the prefix, but that ran into issues both with having appropriate parameters to use (in the generic case) and with evaluation of the prefix (which we don't want to do).
I also considered using qualification, but that doesn't help for relational operators (they all return Boolean!).
It's possible to rename operators to unique names, so the problem isn't unsurmountable, but of course that clutters the name space of packages. (We can use renames as aspects aren't resolved until the freezing point.)
One of course can avoid using operators in generic specifications, but that's impractical for existing generics and a usage pain for new generics.
package Ada.Text_IO with Nonblocking => False is ... generic type Enum is (<>); package Enumeration_IO is -- implicitly Nonblocking => False
Default_Width : Field := 0; Default_Setting : Type_Set := Upper_Case;
procedure Get(File : in File_Type; -- implicitly Nonblocking => False ...
procedure Get(From : in String; Item : out Enum; Last : out Positive) with Nonblocking => True; -- explicitly Nonblocking => True
procedure Put(To : out String; Item : in Enum; Set : in Type_Set := Default_Setting) with Nonblocking => True; -- explicitly Nonblocking => True
end Enumeration_IO ... end Ada.Text_IO;
with Ada.Iterator_Interfaces; generic type Key_Type is private; type Element_Type is private; with function Hash (Key : Key_Type) return Hash_Type; with function Equivalent_Keys (Left, Right : Key_Type) return Boolean; with function "=" (Left, Right : Element_Type) return Boolean is <>; package Ada.Containers.Hashed_Maps is with Nonblocking => Hash'Nonblocking and Equivalent_Keys'Nonblocking and Element_Equal'Nonblocking; pragma Preelaborate(Hashed_Maps); pragma Remote_Types(Hashed_Maps);
function Element_Equal (Left, Right : Element_Type) return Boolean renames "="; -- Rename of formal "=". ...
procedure Iterate (Container : in Map; Process : not null access procedure (Position : in Cursor)) with Nonblocking => False; ...
end Ada.Containers.Hashed_Maps;
Alternatively, we could separately specify the blocking for the individual routines, depending on which of the formal routines they are allowed to use. (Given that we leave that unspecified in the Standard, it's probably better to use a global setting as was done here.)
!ACATS test
ACATS B-Tests and C-Tests.

From: Randy Brukardt
Sent: Thursday, June 2, 2016  7:59 PM

At the Vermont meeting, I was asked to create an alternative to Tucker's
Nonblocking proposal using an attribute to specify nonblocking for generics.
I did that back in December and sent it off to Tucker for comment. After
waiting slightly less than 167 days (and sending between 3-6 reminders,
depending on how one counts) [but who's counting :-)] without receiving any
reply or even acknowledgement, I've decided to stop waiting and submit a
slightly revised draft to the entire group in the hopes of getting comments.
[This is version /02 - Ed.]

While I'm convinced this is better (especially for compatibility with the
existing containers), it probably can be improved further (and there were a
handful of areas that I didn't figure out in detail).


From: Jean-Pierre Rosen
Sent: Friday, June 3, 2016  12:36 AM

>        If not specified for a library unit, the default is True if the
>        library unit is declared pure and is not a generic unit, and
>        False otherwise.

I was wondering about Shared_Passive units. Reading further, I realize that
SP units can call protected subprograms (if the PO has no entries), and those
are not Nonblocking.

Maybe an extra reason for making protected subprograms nonblocking...


From: Tucker Taft
Sent: Friday, June 3, 2016  8:46 AM

Sorry for being so slow.  This upcoming weekend is set aside as my "ARG"
weekend.  It has been really hard for me to find time before now to focus
on the ARG issues.


From: Tucker Taft
Sent: Sunday, June 5, 2016  11:15 AM

Sorry for the late reply.  This looks good to me.  For AI12-0079 I think I
will steal the notion of an attribute of generic formals to specify more
precisely the Global aspect for generic code, as there is a very similar
problem there, and a similar solution seems appropriate.


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