ACATS 4.0 User's Guide
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5.7.2 Deviation from Expected Results - Petition & Review

Each test indicates in its prologue what it expects from a conforming implementation. The result of processing a test is acceptable if and only if the result is explicitly allowed by the grading criteria for the test.
A user may challenge an ACATS test on the grounds of applicability or correctness. A challenger should submit a petition against the test program to an ACAL or to the ACAA, following the procedure and the format presented in [Pro31]. A petition must clearly state whether it is a claim that the test does not apply to the implementation or that the test is incorrect. The petition must indicate the specific section of code that is disputed and provide a full explanation of the reason for the dispute.
ACALs will forward petitions from their customers to the ACAA for decisions. The ACAA will evaluate the petitioner's claims and decide whether: 
the test is applicable to the implementation (i.e., deviation is not allowed);
the test is not applicable to the implementation (i.e., deviation is allowed);
the test should be repaired (deviation is allowed, and the modified test should be used for determining conformity assessment results);
the test should be withdrawn (deviation is allowed and the test is not considered in determining conformity assessment results).
A deviation is considered to be a test failure unless a petition to allow the deviation has been accepted by the ACAA.

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